Connect with us


When will Carey Price play again? Canadiens goaltender returns to team on Monday




Renewed Vs. Refurbished (What’s The Difference?)




When you surf the internet to buy an electronic device, you may come across the terms “refurbished” or “renewed” on some product descriptions.


Both of them show the device is not brand-new.

What’s the main difference between them?

Knowing it helps you make a better decision when buying a device.


Renewed Vs. Refurbished (What’s The Difference?)

Tech shopping device gadget concept. Happy young people buying a new smartphone in mobile shop.



Renewed and refurbished are essentially the same.

The only difference is in the feeling that they evoke in the customer.

Many people have negative feelings towards the term “refurbished,” viewing these products as low quality and in poor condition.

As a result, large retailers such as Amazon use the term “renewed” to reassure their customers that they’ll receive working products in good condition.

Amazon classifies renewed products into refurbished, pre-owned, and open-box.


Pre-owned products are used and returned with the return policy.

Open-box products don’t have the original packaging but are still unused.

All these three categories will have diagnostic tests, replacement of defective parts, and repackaging if necessary.

That said, some companies may have different wordings to refer to items of different conditions.

For example, they may use “Refurbished” for repaired items, whereas “Renewed” indicates the device hasn’t been used.


Another example is Newegg, a reputable website offering refurbished electronics.

On this website, refurbished encompasses all electronics returned to the manufacturer for physical defects.

However, not all refurbished products can have physical defects.

Suppose you purchase a piece of electronics, open the box, but don’t use it.

You want to return it because you don’t like it, or you realize it’s not compatible with your other hardware.


Newegg considers these as refurbished.

Other companies may consider a product that didn’t pass quality tests refurbished.

It’s better to review the company’s terms to see if they differ.


Advantages And Disadvantages Of Getting A Renewed Or Refurbished Device



1. Advantages

Young repairer working with screwdriver in service center


A. Price

Refurbished or renewed devices can’t be sold as new, so they’re usually cheaper than buying new ones.

It’s their most important advantage.

For example, If you love the design and quality of a high-rated smartphone and don’t want to break the bank, this option is good for you.

You can find refurbished iPhones that cost even $350 cheaper than the new ones.



B. Eco-Friendly

Electronic devices severely impact the environment, cause water and air pollution, and fill landfills with e-waste.

Buying refurbished products is a good alternative that will protect our environment.

These products are recycled correctly and don’t lead to environmental damage because you reduce the e-waste by reusing devices.



C. Warranty

When you buy a refurbished or renewed product, it usually comes with a warranty.

If your purchased product malfunctions or you don’t want it for any reason, this option gives you the chance to return it.


D. Repaired By Experts

Refurbished products generally undergo a close inspection.

Experts do the refurbishment process carefully.


It doesn’t matter why the product has been returned.

They check all the pieces and internals.

If something is wrong, they replace it with a new one and ensure that the product is almost new.


2. Disadvantages

Angry frustrated annoyed young adult man consumer feel rage looking at computer



A. Shorter Warranties

Refurbished products have shorter warranty terms than brand-new ones.

The length of warranty in refurbished products depends on who did the refurbishing.

When a manufacturer refurbishes and resells an item, the warranty will last for at least a year.

However, the store’s warranty will be for 30 to 90 days.



B. Do Not Cover The Latest Version

You may choose refurbished products for their excellent price, but pay attention that some products’ latest and greatest versions won’t be sold at the refurbished price.

The latest technology may cost like brand new ones.


C. Possible Defects

Refurbished products have usually been used by someone else and returned because of possible malfunctions, so they likely have some defects.

These defects could be physical or internal.


Physical defects may be blemishes like scratches and nicks on the surface of that product.

Internal problems are more difficult to notice.

For example, the phone’s camera may not work, or the speakers may not be loud enough to hear.

These defects are likely to be listed in the product description.



D. Unknown Lifespan

One of the most significant disadvantages of buying refurbished items is their unknown history.

You don’t know who used it before and how it was used.

It means you don’t know how long the device will last.


What To Consider When Purchasing A Renewed Or Refurbished Device

Young woman receives advice from seller in store of household appliances and gadgets, buying camera.



1. Find A Trustworthy Seller

Always buy refurbished items from a reliable seller.

The best choice is the original manufacturer.

If you don’t want to purchase from the original seller, check the seller’s reviews.

Many online sellers offer you incredible prices, but you should consider whether they’re worth trusting to invest your money in.



2. Read The Product Description

Check the condition of the product before buying.

The product description tells all you need to know about it.

For example, if you want an iPhone, look if the camera works properly.

Also, check the battery and display condition.



3. Check The Warranty

Don’t buy any refurbished device without a warranty, as it protects you in the future.

If a device doesn’t work, you can use its warranty to repair it or get a new one.

Ask the seller about details of the warranty before buying.


4. Check The Extra Items In The Package

Check the product box to see whether you received all the items mentioned in the description.


The package should include all the accessories you’d receive when buying a new device.

For example, a phone box should come with charging gear, earphones, and cable, but it doesn’t happen all the time.

Plus, test the accessories to ensure they work properly.


5. Return Policy

The refurbished device may start malfunctioning after some days, and you need to return it to the company, so don’t forget to buy the products which come under the return policy.


Different companies may have different return policies, allowing you to return the product within a certain period.


6. Know The Difference Between Refurbished And Used Devices

Typically, refurbished devices come under warranty and will be checked out during refurbishment.

They’re more reliable for investing your money.

However, used devices are second-hand items that an individual resells.


They aren’t checked and repaired and don’t have a return policy or warranty.

Therefore, research carefully before buying and ensure you buy from a reputable store or seller.


7. Check The Customer Reviews

Customers who have bought a device recently explain its pros and cons, and it will help you to make a more thoughtful decision.

You can also find the real picture of that product and imagine what your future purchase will look like.



Grading Of Refurbished Devices

A collection of electronic gadgets all in black organized in a minimalist style.


A refurbished grade is a ranking used to classify the cosmetic condition of refurbished devices.

This grade mostly depends on some factors such as:

  • What is the cosmetic quality of the device?
  • How long has the previous owner used that device?
  • What does its packaging look like?

Generally, this grading ranges from A to C.

Each of these grades has a different meaning.


Some companies use different grading systems.

You can usually find a key explaining the grades on their website.


A. Grade A

Grade A offers the best quality you expect from refurbished products.

Their cosmetics are excellent.


You will find only very light scratches if any.

These items are mainly those sold to the customer, but they never used them and returned them immediately after opening the box.

In other cases, they were display items in a shop, so it was just turned on and off.

You can see minor signs of previous use in them.

It doesn’t have any problems in functioning.


All of the devices will be tested before reselling.


B. Grade B

Grade B is the second-best quality.

You can expect to see light scratches or scuffs.

These imperfections only refer to appearance.


Just like Grade A products, they’re tested thoroughly and function perfectly.

They’re more affordable than Grade A products, so they could be ideal if you have a limited budget.


C. Grade C

These products come with the lowest cosmetic quality, showing noticeable physical defects.

Although they’re tested and fixed just like Grades A and B, their appearance looks like a used product.


For example, you may see dents or shiny keys on the keyboard.

You can trust this grade if you need a laptop and don’t have enough money.


What Renewed Or Refurbished Devices Should You Buy?

Open laptop with digital tablet and white smartphone.


1. Laptops And Tablets

Reputable companies inspect refurbished laptops and tablets carefully before reselling them.


Therefore, you can trust that they’ve been checked and have new, replaced parts.

Moreover, if something goes wrong with your device, the warranty ensures you can return it to the company.


2. Video Game Consoles

To be honest, game consoles are expensive.

You can find a refurbished video game console from a reputable seller at a lower price.


You should check the device before buying and ask for a warranty to ensure it is a good choice for you.

Also, make sure the manufacturer has refurbished the product, not an obscure third-party seller.


3. Smartphones

You can buy a refurbished smartphone but deal only with the manufacturer.

Likely, the third party won’t give you any warranties.


Many people risk saving more money and trust in refurbished phones.

It could be a good decision if you consider all the aspects before buying.


What Renewed Or Refurbished Devices Should You Not Buy?

New modern printer on table in office


When you want to buy some devices refurbished, it’s not worth saving a few bucks over possible troubles that may occur.



1. Televisions

Although refurbished or renewed TVs suggest lower prices, you should consider some factors to avoid going blind.

You may buy a used TV in good condition with no sign of physical damage.

However, it’s hard to understand how old the refurbished TV is, and it may have many hours of playtime.



2. Printers

Most refurbished printers look new but may have old ink flowing through their guts.

Typically, it’s better to choose a new, but not expensive, printer than to have a refurbished one, which may cause many problems in the future.


How To Tell If A Phone Is Refurbished

Man using New iPhone 13 Pro


1. iPhone

The iPhone is one of the devices many people prefer to buy refurbished because of the hefty price tags on the new ones.


If you want to buy a refurbished iPhone, some reliable stores help you experience a safe purchase.

They include the Apple company, Amazon Renewed, and Amazon Warehouse.

If you have already bought an iPhone, you can check the model number to see if it’s refurbished.

To find this number, go to Settings > General > About.

In this section, you will see different details about the device.


Check the model number.

This is a code that starts with a letter.

Each letter has a special meaning.

If it starts with M, it shows that the phone is new.

If it starts with F, it’s refurbished by Apple.


If it starts with P, it shows that this device was sold as a personalized iPhone, and there’s an engraving on its chassis.

Also, the letter N means that an iPhone replaced a defective iPhone.


2. Android

Unfortunately, Android phones don’t have a model number like iPhones to indicate their status.

In older versions (android 4.0 and below), you can use a code to know the hidden RTN menu of your device.


It indicates the condition status of the phone.

You can find it by dialing a number into the keypad (##786#), which answers YES or NO to you if your phone is refurbished.

The hidden RTN has been disabled for newer models (above android 4), and you can only download an app from the Google Play store to give you the necessary information about the device.


Who Sells Refurbished Devices?

Cincinnati - Circa May 2017: Amazon Store in the U Square



You can buy refurbished products directly from those who fix them or big retailers like Apple, Amazon, Best Buy, Walmart, and eBay.

It is necessary to know the essential information about each of these businesses for smart shopping.


1. Apple

Apple is one of the best retailers for refurbished products.

It provides like-new products with significant discounts.


All their refurbished products come with a one-year warranty.

Its products include iPhone, iPad, Apple Watch, Apple TV, and Mac.


2. Amazon

Refurbished products are called renewed in this company.

A qualified supplier will test the products to work correctly and look like new ones.


If a third-party seller produces an item, Amazon will inspect it.

Amazon renewed products include: laptops and computers, smartphones, tablets, home appliances, musical instruments, etc.

The Amazon Renewed Guarantee supports all products.


3. eBay

This company sells many different refurbished products from third parties.


It has a Certified Refurbished program for its products, which provides perfect discounts and direct repairs by manufacturers for customers.

They give you a two-year warranty with your purchase.


4. Best Buy

Most of the products of Best Buy will be refurbished by their subsidiary, Geek Squad.

Third parties will refurbish only a few products, but all have a return policy and warranty.


Their warranty is usually shorter than the warranty of a new product.


5. Walmart

Walmart is the second biggest retailer in the world.

This company has various standards for each of its products.

It labels some of them “certificated,” while others don’t include it.


Also, the return policy depends on the seller.



thinking man with phone


1. Are Refurbished Phones Still Waterproof?

Waterproofing is not guaranteed on refurbished devices since the seller may open them to test and repair them.

However, if waterproofing is mentioned in the product description, it should be as water-resistant as a brand-new model.



2. What’s The Difference Between Refurbished And Certified Refurbished?

Refurbished products are those that a third-party company or an individual fix and resell.

On the other hand, the manufacturer inspects and fixes the certified refurbished products.

The former will land you a better price, but most of them don’t come with a warranty.

The certified refurbished has a short-term warranty.


The post Renewed Vs. Refurbished (What’s The Difference?) appeared first on The Cold Wire.

Source link

Continue Reading


Lamar Jackson has a HUGE day with 325 total yards and five TD in Ravens' 37-26 victory over Patriots



The Baltimore Ravens defeated the New England Patriots 37-26 behind five total TD by Lamar Jackson. He threw for 218 yards and rushed for 107 yards on the day. The Ravens improved to 2-1.

Source link

Continue Reading


Why Are Bonnie And Clyde So Famous? (Explained)




The story of Bonnie and Clyde is one that many are familiar with.


The pair became well known during their two-year crime spree throughout the United States.

Since then, they have been idolized in history books, blog posts, and even on film.

Close friends or partners caught up in mischief may even joke that they are the “modern-day Bonnie and Clyde,” perhaps without the knowledge of the gravity of the crimes originally committed.

However, there have been many notable criminals throughout history.

So, what is it about the pair that makes them so widely known more than 80 years after their deaths?



Why Are Bonnie And Clyde So Famous?

bonnie and clyde models dressed up


Bonnie and Clyde became widely famous for their string of crimes including bank robberies, vehicle thefts, murders, and kidnappings during 1931-1934.

This was at the height of the Great Depression when many were suffering both financially and socially.

The two being in the spotlight provided a distraction from the negativity and hardships occurring within the United States.


Many Americans during this time were feeling intense frustration and hatred toward banks and even businesses.

Bonnie and Clyde were, in a way, allowing the common person to live vicariously through the pair who were doing what some were too scared to do (rob a bank or a store).

The public even considered the couple the Robin Hoods of that time.

Crime during this period was already occurring at high rates, as Americans were doing whatever they could to feed their families and keep themselves from being evicted from their own homes.

Bonnie and Clyde were taking a bold step, but it ultimately could be argued that they, too, were doing what they could to help themselves and their families survive during the Great Depression.


The period of time in which their crimes were committed has been labeled “The Year of the Gangster” by the FBI and they have since become known as the most notorious crime couple in the history of America.

Not only has their criminal activity been widely publicized, but the supposed romance between the two has also inspired songs, poems, films, and musicals.

The crimes, the hunt, and then their ultimate death is still romanticized to this day.


Eastham Prison Farm Escape

hands of prisoner holding black metal bars, criminal locked in jail waiting for release



According to some, one of their biggest crimes was the raid of Eastham Prison Farm in 1934.

Reports say that the pair considered this revenge, as this was the prison that Clyde was kept in for a period of time.

The Bismarck Tribune reported that Bonnie and Clyde used machine guns to attack guards as they were leading prisoners out into the fields.

The jailbreak had mixed outcomes.

It was successful in that they broke out four gang members, however, those who broke out were later caught and imprisoned.


One notable gang member they broke out was Raymond Hamilton, an acquaintance of Clyde.


Their Untimely End In 1934

"Police Line Do No Cross" caution tape, with a law enforcement officer in the blurry background


The couple spent the rest of their lives running from the law until May 23, 1934, when they were discovered hiding in Louisiana with Henry Methvin.

Law enforcement, working with the Texas Rangers, learned that the couple would be returning to Black Lake in Louisiana.


Bonnie and Clyde were killed in an ambush set by the police, who had hidden in bushes along a highway near their suspected location.

By that time, the couple was suspected of 13 murders, along with many burglaries and robberies.


Who Was Bonnie Parker?

Bonnie was born in the city of Rowena, Texas in October 1910.

She loved reading, writing poetry, and taking pictures, and if not for her meeting Clyde, she had aspired to become a poet and photographer.


Her family moved to a suburb in West Dallas when Bonnie was four years old, after the death of her father.

She married her high school sweetheart Roy Thornton at 16 years old, before dropping out of high school.

However, Roy was imprisoned in 1029, which was a few years after they were married.

Roy had frequent run-ins with law enforcement and was sentenced to life in jail.

There are many reports that say that Bonnie never spoke to Roy again, although the two were legally married until her death in 1934.


Some say she died with his wedding ring still on her finger.


Who Was Clyde Barrow?

Clyde was born in Ellis County, Texas in March of 1909 but his family moved to West Dallas in the 1920s.

He came from a very poor family and was one of seven children.

There are reports that after their move to Dallas, they were homeless for a time until finding enough money to buy a tent.


Clyde’s exposure to extreme financial hardship throughout his young life ultimately led to an early start to his life of crime.

By the time he was 17 years old, he was working alongside his brother cracking safes, robbing stores, and stealing cars.


1930 – The Beginning Of The Duo

The couple met in 1930 through a mutual friend, shortly before Clyde went to jail for stealing a vehicle.

Bonnie continued to visit Clyde throughout his sentence in jail and eventually assisted Clyde in escaping in 1930 when she smuggled a gun to him.


He was captured shortly after his escape, but this may be where fans say their love first began.

Clyde’s first murder was of an inmate in the Eastham Prison.

This inmate, Ed Crowder, or “Big Ed,” was an asset to the prison because he was tasked with keeping the peace among the men.

His peacekeeping tactics leaned toward violence and injury to the other prisoners who opposed him.

Big Ed also had an unfortunate history of repeatedly assaulting Clyde.


This prompted Clyde to eventually retaliate and murder him.

In an effort to get out of the line of fire within the prison grounds, Clyde cut off two of his toes so that he would be allowed to stay in the infirmary.

Additionally, another prisoner who was already imprisoned for life ended up taking the blame for the murder.

At this time, Clyde did not know that his mother was putting forth her own attempts to get him released.

Her efforts were successful, and Clyde was granted parole in 1932 thanks to his mother’s petitions to get him out of prison.


Within just a few months of Clyde and Bonnie being reunited, their criminal activities were well underway.

Although the two were under suspicion for a variety of crimes, it wasn’t until 1933 that the police were able to identify that Bonnie and Clyde, along with Clyde’s brother, had been involved in a string of carjackings that crossed state lines.

The crossing of state lines is what allowed the FBI to finally, and officially, become involved in the hunt for the duo.


Notable Crimes




During their reign of terror, the couple was suspected of committing a wide variety of crimes.

They were believed to be assisting a gang in Kaufman County, Texas in stealing cars, firearms, and money which were used in a later raid of the Eastham Prison.

The pair, with helpers, was also seen robbing banks and stores throughout the United States.

During their raids, they were known to hold citizens as prisoners and murder law enforcement.

In one such encounter with law enforcement, the two murdered a pair of highway patrolmen.


As a result, The Brownsville Herald newspaper with the support of L. G. Phares, the chief of the patrol, began to publicize that whatever man brought in Clyde or his accomplice Bonnie (dead or alive) would be awarded $1,500.

Bonnie and Clyde, alongside several others, stole as much money as they were able.

Reports say that in one raid, the gang stole approximately $1,900 which is around $39,000 when compared to the value of money today.


Public Sightings Aided Law Enforcement

Many crimes they were suspected of were actually reported by citizens who had seen them in their towns.


Law enforcement did not necessarily have solid evidence against them.

However, the reports aided them in following the couple across the country.

Clyde was reported to have been seen and involved in a wide variety of crimes spanning Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and even Missouri.

The crimes reported and later confirmed include:

  • Murdering a man on the street in Hillsboro, Texas
  • Committing robberies within Lufkin and Dallas, Texas
  • Murdering a sheriff and wounding another citizen in Stringtown, Oklahoma
  • Kidnapping a deputy in Carlsbad, New Mexico
  • Vehicle theft in Victoria, Texas
  • Murder attempts in Wharton, Texas
  • Combined murder and robbery in Abilene and Sherman, Texas
  • Abducting two members of the law in Wellington, Texas
  • Murder of citizens in Joplin and Columbia, Missouri
  • Robbery at gunpoint in Louisiana


The Barrow Gang And Its Members

A group of dangerous retro gangsters are walking in the park.



The scope of Bonnie and Clyde’s crimes was so widespread that they could not have worked alone.

Rather, they had a variety of other criminals who rotated in and out of their gang to help with various illegal activities.

Clyde’s brother Buck and his wife Blanche were just two of many people involved.

Other notable gang members included W.D. Jones, Henry Methvin, Ralph Fults, Joe Palmer, Raymond Hamilton, and S.J. Whatley.



The Beginning Of Police Investigations

Detective board with fingerprints


Police began to investigate the couple’s actions when they connected a string of carjackings that they suspected the two were a part of.

Initially, they had only identified that a man and woman had been involved.

This was determined from personal items that Bonnie and Clyde would leave behind in abandoned, stolen vehicles.

It was not until the police found a prescription bottle in an abandoned vehicle that had been filled by Clyde’s aunt that they were officially led to investigate Clyde.


Further investigation revealed that Clyde’s aunt had received visits from Clyde’s brother, L. C. Barrow, and Bonnie.

Law enforcement then began forming their own conclusions and followed Bonnie and Clyde’s actions to the best of their abilities.

The FBI did not become involved until they were able to find evidence of the couple stealing and then driving the stolen vehicles across state lines.

This investigation began about a year before they were finally killed in an ambush by police.

During that year, FBI agents from Dallas, New Orleans, Detroit, Kansas City, Oklahoma City, San Antonio, St. Louis, and many other cities became involved in the pursuit of the couple.


The agents within these cities collaborated and shared any new information, suspected leads, and informants with each other.


After Death And Family Burials

Blank gravestone with other graves and trees in background. Old stone.


Bonnie had written a poem that expressed the couple’s desire to be buried together.

However, those wishes were not granted.


Private funeral services were arranged by both families.

Bonnie’s family in particular was nervous about the mass amounts of people trying to get a glimpse of the body and were reluctant to share the details of her funeral services and burial arrangements.

One interesting fact that was unknown until after their deaths is that Bonnie and Clyde’s relatives had been paying for a life insurance policy worth $5,000 which they received a payout for after their deaths.

This may suggest that the family was aware of their crimes and suspected their deaths would occur.



The Highwaymen Film

Filming on location. Man holding a clapperboard in front of the camera, the filming process. Scene on location


Even in death, the dynamic duo is remembered and talked about widely.

“The Highwaymen,” a dramatic film starring Kevin Costner and Woody Harrelson, was released in 2019.

The film followed two Texas Rangers, Frank Hamer and Maney Gault, in their hunt for Bonnie and Clyde.

Many reviewers enjoyed the film’s take on the time period, particularly that the film focused on the pair of former Texas Rangers’ heroic acts rather than glorifying Bonnie and Clyde.


“The Highwaymen” was the first version of the actions of Bonnie and Clyde from a different perspective—one of the law enforcement, journalists, and historians who were alive during that time.

Frank Hamer’s descendants spoke with Fusco and the director to recollect Hamer’s perspective and stories.

The overall reviews of the film are mixed, with some stating the movie was easy to follow and enjoyable.

Other reviews stated that while the storyline was good, the on-screen action was dull.



Bonnie And Clyde, 1967 Movie

There was another film released about the couple.

This film, called “Bonnie and Clyde,” was released in 1967.

This original film starred Faye Dunaway and Warren Beatty as Bonnie and Clyde.

However, this film led to legal problems for Warner Bros., who was sued by the wife of Frank Hamer (the Texas Ranger) for defamation.

This was because the film portrayed Frank as a bumbling idiot rather than a hero.


His wife settled out of court.

Despite this, the film is still considered a classic and in 1992 was added to the National Film Registry at the Library of Congress.

The screenwriter for “The Highwaymen” recognized Frank Hamer’s true contributions to the final defeat of Bonnie and Clyde.

John Fusco took it upon himself to learn about Hamer’s role and to tell his story accurately, as the unsung hero he was.



Comparisons To Today’s Celebrities

hloe Karsahian, Kourtney Kardashian, Kim Kardashian West, Kris Jenner, Kylie Jenner


Many have related Bonnie and Clyde to the Kardashians.

This is not to say that the Kardashians are widespread criminals and murderers.

Rather, some fans believe that if the two were still alive today that they would likely have as much, if not more, of a social media following than the Kardashian family.



“The Story Of Suicide Sal” And “The Ballad Of Bonnie And Clyde”

Throughout their crime spree, Bonnie continued to feed her passion for writing poetry.

While on the run from the FBI in 1934, she wrote “The Story of Suicide Sal” and “The Ballad of Bonnie and Clyde,” which weren’t released until after their deaths.

In “The Story of Suicide Sal,” Bonnie makes the reader pity her for growing up as a country girl who moved to the harsh and unforgiving big city, which is when she fell in love with a henchman named Jack, or Clyde.

She was swept into his criminal ways and despite his murky past, decided she would die for him.

The poem even references Uncle Sam, who represents the United States government.


The poem implies that during this time, Uncle Sam was forcing citizens to participate in uncivilized acts to survive.

“The Ballad of Bonnie and Clyde” also told their tale from Bonnie’s perspective.

She again accuses Uncle Sam of portraying the couple harshly, by stating “there’s lots of untruths to these write-ups, they’re not ruthless as that” and blamed the unfairness of the government for Clyde’s imprisonment.

However one chooses to interpret Bonnie’s words, it is clear she was a skilled writer and painted a compelling story of Bonnie and Clyde that is still remembered.

The post Why Are Bonnie And Clyde So Famous? (Explained) appeared first on The Cold Wire.


Source link

Continue Reading